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PLASMA-ARC EQUIPMENT FOR THE PROCESSING OF LIQUID WASTES AND WATER EMULSIONS OF ORGANIC SUBSTANCES WITH SIMULTANEOUS PRODUCTION OF HIGH-ENERGY GAS

Introduction

The proposed equipment is designed for the processing and cleaning of oil-contained liquid wastes and sewage with a high concentration of organic and hazardous components.

These waste include all types of oil, antifreeze, solvents; waste of vegetable oils, waste of dairy processing and oil-chemical industries, liquid oil sludge, highly contaminated waste water of municipal sewage lines, contaminated water of sanitary landfills, fat emulsions and other liquid waste of meat processing plants and sugar factories, liquid waste of breeding complexes, etc.

Such wastes come from the enterprises of oil processing industry, public utilities, agricultural production, chemical, light, processing industry and other sources.

The Technology of plasma-arc processing of liquid wastes allows performing their purification with simultaneous production of synthesis gas. The byproduct is steam and neutral mineral residue. Water steam is recycled into heat and electricity with simultaneous production of distilled water. Due to a considerable positive balance of the generated energy, such technology is considered as energy-saving, which provides partial power supply to the equipment for purification of the considered wastes.

The good prospects of this technology have been demonstrated as a result of many years of research conducted at the Institute of Fundamental Research (Florida, USA) and at the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Processing of water emulsions resulted in generation of combustible gas meeting the highest ecological requirements. The gas does not contain any hydrocarbons, as it forms at high temperatures of the order of 3900 C, and consists of monooxide of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. By its energy characteristics such synthetic gas is close to natural gas  methane.

Synthesis gas generated at such treatment is inexpensive, safe and effective. Compared to hydrocarbons, it burns faster, but is explosion-safe, lighter than air and thus, quickly dissipates, has a distinct natural odour, thus allowing it to be readily detected. It does not ignite on its own, and the cylinders for its transportation are safer, than petrol tanks. In the USA such synthesis-gas is called "magnegas".

Operational principles of the installation

The reactor which is a closed chamber, filled with liquid wastes and sewage to be processed. The circulation pump pumps the wastes through the direct current discharge. The electrodes, between which the arc discharge runs, are located inside the reactor. In the reactor the liquid molecules dissociate (decompose) into atoms consisting mainly of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon and other possible impurities (depends on the initial composition) in the electric arc. The electric current brings the individual atoms into an ionized state, separates the peripheral electrons from their nuggets and plasma with the temperature of up to 3900 C is formed.

The plasma flow across the arc induces chemical reactions, leading to formation of combustible synthetic gas, which is the energy carrier and can be used for domestic purposes. The energy capacity of the produced synthetic gas is 2.5  3 times higher than the energy consumption for its generation.

No liquid, solid or gaseous emissions are released into the atmosphere. The processing unit does not produce any noise or odour. No chemicals are added during the unit operation, as during processing the biologically contaminated liquid wastes are fully sterilized under the impact of high temperature > 3500 C and very strong ultraviolet radiation of the plasma arc. Thus, production of ecologically pure gas is related to the problem of the hazardous emissions processing.

A byproduct generated by such a technology, is water steam. Water steam is recycled into heat, and electricity with simultaneous generation of distilled water.

Numerous chemical analyses of the combustion products of this synthetic gas showed that the products do not contain any carcinogenic or other toxic compounds, carbon dioxide gas is present in them in units of percent, which meets all the ecological standards.

Molecular structure of such an ecologically pure synthesis-gas, studied in different testing laboratories (for instance, at the Institute of Fundamental Research (Florida, USA), is presented by the following chemical compounds: H2 40-45%, CO 55-60%, CO2 1-2%. These simple substances are combined into clusters with small and large molecular weights and individual atoms of hydrogen, oxygen and carbon.

At combustion of such a gas, first the magnetic clusters break up, then regular chemical reactions of oxidation become intensive. Therefore, the combustion products have a regular chemical structure. So, hydrogen, when combining with oxygen, forms water vapours in the amount of 60%, part of CO decomposes into C and O, and after that all the available hydrogen combines with oxygen, and the remaining oxygen is released in the form suitable for breathing in the amount of 12-14%, the remaining CO oxidizes further with formation of CO2 in the amount of 6-8%, and part of carbon  1215% precipitates. Thermal power of such synthetic gas depends on the kind of liquid wastes, from which it is produced  the higher the effluent saturation with hydrocarbons, the higher it is. So, a mixture of antifreeze and organic effluents generates about 7700 ccal/m3, and a mixture of petroleum products with water  8900 ccal/m3.

Compared to hydrocarbons produced at recycling of liquid wastes and effluents by the plasma-arc technology, such a synthetic gas burns faster, but is explosion safe, lighter than air and, therefore, disperses faster, has a distinct natural odour, thus allowing it to be readily detected. It does not ignite on its own, and the cylinders for its transportation are safer than petrol tanks.

Synthetic gas produced at plasma-arc processing of water sewage and liquid wastes, has been tested as fuel at USMagneGas Inc., and at the Institute of Fundamental Research, USA. Ferrari 308 GSTI and Honda Civic, fuelled by this gas, were subjected to various tests. So, for example, Honda Civic car, initially burning natural gas, was fuelled by a new type of synthesis-gas of (MG) grade without any essential modifications, and successfully passed all the tests without any catalyst. The results of given researches indicate the superiority of magnegas as to exhaust purity. Here several remarks should be made. Obtained synthetic gas does not contain any heavy hydrocarbons, as it is produced at the temperature above 3500 C, so that the measured hydrocarbons in the exhaust gases are the consequence of burning of oil fed for lubrication into the engine. The given results were obtained on cars modified for natural gas and do not represent the best of the possible methods of the given type of synthetic gas combustion.

The given data are indicative of superiority of such synthetic gas produced at plasma-arc processing of liquid wastes, compared to natural gas. One of the most attractive features of such gaseous fuel consists exactly in that its combustion has a positive oxygen balance. Here, a lower content of carbonic acid is fixed in the combustion products of such a gas compared to methane. The main part of combustion products of this gas is water vapour (about 60%). The balance is carbon dioxide gas. In addition, this gas has the characteristic odour, which makes it more safe.

One of the obtained effects at application of such a gas is the fact that it can be used as a combustible gas for gas cutting of metals and by its efficiency and other characteristics, it is not inferior to acetylene and is its substitute.

Completeness

of the plasma-arc installation PLAZER 201for the processing of used water-based organic emulsions (water 30-60% for production of synthesis-gas with improved energy characteristics:

Reactor

Power supply system

Reactor cooling system

Electrode assemblies (cathode and anode)

Electrode electric drives

Emulsions feed systems

Systems of protection and monitoring of process parameters

Systems of synthesis-gas separation and purification

Accumulating tanks

Automatics and control module

Platform

Service lines shutoff and control valves

Block-diagram of the installation PLAZER 201 to produce synthesis-gas with improved characteristics by plasma-arc processing of used water emulsions

Control panel of the installation PLAZER 201

Stages of manufacturing of the installation PLAZER 201 to produce synthesis-gas with improved characteristics by plasma-arc processing of used water emulsions

General view of the installation PLAZER 201

to produce synthesis-gas with improved characteristics by plasma-arc processing of used water emulsions

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